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Apex - Advanced Topic

 Apex Integration

Callouts to External Services

Apex can make HTTP callouts to integrate with external web services.

public class CalloutExample {


    public static void makeCallout() {

        Http http = new Http();

        HttpRequest request = new HttpRequest();



        HttpResponse response = http.send(request);





Handling Callout Responses

Handle responses from external services and process them.

HttpResponse response = http.send(request);

if (response.getStatusCode() == 200) {

    // Process response

} else {

    // Handle error



Using Named Credentials

Named credentials simplify callouts by storing authentication details securely.

Assignment: Write an Apex class to make a callout to a public API (e.g., a weather API) and print the response. Use named credentials for authentication if needed.


Apex Design Patterns

Singleton Pattern

Ensure a class has only one instance.

public class SingletonExample {

    private static SingletonExample instance;


    private SingletonExample() {}


    public static SingletonExample getInstance() {

        if (instance == null) {

            instance = new SingletonExample();


        return instance;



Factory Pattern

Create objects without specifying the exact class.

public class ShapeFactory {

    public Shape getShape(String shapeType) {

        if (shapeType == 'Circle') {

            return new Circle();

        } else if (shapeType == 'Square') {

            return new Square();


        return null;




public interface Shape {

    void draw();



public class Circle implements Shape {

    public void draw() {

        System.debug('Drawing Circle');




public class Square implements Shape {

    public void draw() {

        System.debug('Drawing Square');



Assignment: Implement a singleton pattern for a logging utility class that logs messages to a custom object. Also, create a factory pattern to generate different types of logs (e.g., info, error).


Advanced SOQL and SOSL

Complex Queries with SOQL

Use complex queries to filter and sort data.

List<Account> accounts = [SELECT Id, Name FROM Account WHERE CreatedDate > LAST_N_DAYS:30];


Using SOSL for Full-Text Search

SOSL is used for full-text searches.

List<List<sObject>> searchResults = [FIND 'Acme' IN ALL FIELDS RETURNING Account(Id, Name), Contact(Id, Name)];

Performance Considerations

  • Use indexed fields in WHERE clauses.
  • Limit the number of records returned.

Assignment: Write a SOQL query to find all contacts related to accounts created in the last 30 days. Use SOSL to search for a keyword across multiple objects.


Advanced Triggers and Trigger Frameworks

Writing Complex Triggers

Implement complex logic in triggers using context variables.

trigger ComplexTrigger on Account (before insert, before update) {

    if (Trigger.isBefore) {

        if (Trigger.isInsert) {

            // Logic for before insert

        } else if (Trigger.isUpdate) {

            // Logic for before update





Trigger Frameworks and Patterns

Use a trigger handler class to organize and modularize your code.

trigger AccountTrigger on Account (before insert, before update) {

    if (Trigger.isBefore) {

        if (Trigger.isInsert) {


        } else if (Trigger.isUpdate) {

            AccountTriggerHandler.beforeUpdate(Trigger.new, Trigger.oldMap);





public class AccountTriggerHandler {

    public static void beforeInsert(List<Account> newAccounts) {

        for (Account acc : newAccounts) {

            acc.Description = 'New Account';




    public static void beforeUpdate(List<Account> newAccounts, Map<Id, Account> oldMap) {

        for (Account acc : newAccounts) {

            if (acc.Name != oldMap.get(acc.Id).Name) {

                acc.Description = 'Account Name Updated';






Assignment: Implement a trigger handler framework for a Contact trigger that handles both insert and update events.


Security in Apex

Enforcing Sharing Rules

Use the with sharing keyword to enforce sharing rules.


public with sharing class SharingExample {

    // Class logic that respects sharing rules



Field-Level Security and Object Permissions

Check field-level security and object permissions programmatically.

// Check field-level security

Schema.SObjectType accountSchema = Schema.getGlobalDescribe().get('Account');

Schema.SObjectField nameField = accountSchema.getDescribe().fields.getMap().get('Name');

if (nameField.getDescribe().isAccessible()) {

    // Field is accessible



// Check object-level permissions

if (accountSchema.getDescribe().isCreateable()) {

    // Object is createable


Securing Apex Code

  • Avoid SOQL injection by using binding variables.
  • Validate user inputs.

Assignment: Write a class that enforces sharing rules and checks field-level security before updating a field on the Account object.


Custom Metadata and Custom Settings

Using Custom Metadata Types

Custom metadata types are used to define application configuration data.

CustomMetadataType__mdt metadataRecord = [SELECT Field__c FROM CustomMetadataType__mdt WHERE DeveloperName = 'MyRecord'];



Custom Settings (Hierarchy and List)

Custom settings are similar to custom objects and are used to create and manage custom data.

// Hierarchy Custom Setting

MySetting__c settings = MySetting__c.getInstance(UserInfo.getUserId());



// List Custom Setting

List<MySetting__c> settingsList = MySetting__c.getAll().values();


Assignment: Create a custom metadata type for storing configuration settings. Write an Apex class to retrieve and use these settings in your application.


Dynamic Apex

Dynamic SOQL and DML

Dynamic SOQL and DML allow you to construct queries and manipulate data at runtime.

String query = 'SELECT Id, Name FROM Account WHERE Name = :accountName';

List<Account> accounts = Database.query(query);


Using sObject and Schema Classes

Use sObject and Schema classes for dynamic operations.

sObject obj = Schema.getGlobalDescribe().get('Account').newSObject();

obj.put('Name', 'Dynamic Account');

insert obj;


Reflection in Apex

Use reflection to inspect classes and their properties at runtime.

Map<String, Schema.SObjectType> schemaMap = Schema.getGlobalDescribe();

Schema.SObjectType accountType = schemaMap.get('Account');


Assignment: Write a dynamic SOQL query to fetch accounts based on user input. Create a new Account object dynamically using the sObject and Schema classes.


Platform Events and Apex

Introduction to Platform Events

Platform events enable event-driven architecture in Salesforce, allowing you to publish and subscribe to custom events.

Publishing and Subscribing to Events

// Publish event

MyEvent__e event = new MyEvent__e(Field__c='value');

Database.SaveResult sr = EventBus.publish(event);


// Subscribe to event

trigger MyEventTrigger on MyEvent__e (after insert) {

    for (MyEvent__e event : Trigger.new) {





Event-Driven Architecture

Decouple components and improve system scalability by using platform events.

Assignment: Create a platform event for notifying when a new account is created. Write an Apex trigger to publish the event and another to subscribe and process it.


Invocable Apex

Creating Invocable Methods for Flow and Process Builder

Invocable methods allow you to call Apex from Flow and Process Builder.

public class InvocableExample {


    public static void myInvocableMethod(List<String> input) {

        for (String s : input) {

            System.debug('Invocable method input: ' + s);





Use Cases for Invocable Apex

Enhance Flows and Process Builders with custom logic and reusable business logic.

Assignment: Write an invocable method that takes a list of account IDs and updates their descriptions. Create a Flow to call this method.


Apex and Lightning Components

Using Apex with Lightning Web Components (LWCs)

Annotate Apex methods with @AuraEnabled to use them with LWCs.


Copy code

public class LWCController {


    public static List<Account> getAccounts() {

        return [SELECT Id, Name FROM Account];



Apex as a Controller for LWCs

Integrate Apex with LWCs for server-side logic.

// JavaScript in LWC

import { LightningElement, wire } from 'lwc';

import getAccounts from '@salesforce/apex/LWCController.getAccounts';


export default class AccountList extends LightningElement {

    @wire(getAccounts) accounts;



Best Practices for Integrating Apex with LWCs

  • Use @AuraEnabled methods for server-side logic.
  • Handle errors gracefully.
  • Optimize performance by minimizing server calls.

Assignment: Create a simple LWC that fetches and displays a list of accounts using an Apex controller method.

For more in-depth tutorials and learning paths, refer to the following resources:

Happy learning!


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